Red Sorrel Production

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RED SORREL PRODUCTION

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BACKGROUND

  • Native from the East Indies
  • Recorded in Jamaica in 1707
  • Scientific Name:  Hibisus sabdariffa.
  • Common Name: Roselle Jamaican Sorrel, Queensland Jelly Plant, Sour sour, Lemon Bush and Florida

MAJOR SORREL PRODUCING PARISH

  • Clarendon over 160ha annually
  • Manchester
  • St. Elizabeth
  • St Catherine
  • St Thomas

Cultivars of Red Sorrel

  1. TRADITIONAL
  • Tall (up to 2m) and sprawling
  • Red stem with Large fruits                                   
  • Average yield of 1kg/plant
  • Reaping over a 4-5wks period
  • Exporters choice

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  1. MANCHESTER BLACK
  • Grows to a height of over 2m
  • Black stem with fruits being large and deep dark brown to blackish in colour
  • Average yield of 1.2-1.5kg/plant
  • Reaping over a 4-5wks period
  • Processors choice

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BASHMENT

  • Shortest growing to a height of 1.75m-2m with few branches.
  • Flowering starts 8wks after planting
  • Small fruits but 2 nd heaviest to the Manchester black.
  • Fruits are dark red to brown in colour
  • Average yield of 2.2-2.4kg/plant
  • Reaping takes place over 8wks period.
  • Processors and exporters choice.

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ECOLOGY

Climatic condition:

  • tropical crop
  • Susceptible to damage from frost & fog
  • Prefer abundant sunshine

Rainfall Condition:

Prefer rainfall of 1500-2000mm/yr

Elevation:

Best on elevation from sea level to 600m

Soil:

Prefer sandy loam to Humus soil with pH 4.5-8.0

Cultivation Practices

LAND PREPARATION

  • Remove all weeds and debris.
  • Land must be ploughed and refine up to 20cm deep.
  • Furrowing and ridges should be established.

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PLANTING & SPACING

 Dig holes 1m along and between rows

 Place seeds (If not planting by seedlings)  at 1cm in dept and cover lightly with soils.

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 Time of planting:

  • Traditional Red: May -August
  • Manchester Black: April-June
  • Bashment: All year round

GERMINATION

  • Seeds germinate within 3-7 days
  • N.B. The seeds of the Bashment cultivar experience HARDSEEDINESS

Solutions: Soak seed in hot water for 5min

                   Expose seeds to heat (60-70 o C) for 1-2hrs

                   Impact of seeds against a hard surface.

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FERTILIZATION

 Initially a Soil analysis is recommended

 A general recommendation is 8bags fertilizer (11:22:22) per hectare, applied at planting or by 2wks after germination.

Pest Diseases

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IPM (INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT)

What is lPM?

 IPM a is safe approach to pest control in Jamaica. It uses a mixture of ways (Integrated) to prevent crop damage and protect man, helpful creatures and the environment (soil, water, air, other creatures) (Management).

HOW DOES IPM WORK?

  • In IPM, farmers use a better understanding of nature (soil, water, climate, creatures, and plants) to make it easy for crops to flourish but hard for pests.
  • Harmful pesticides are used ONLY WHEN NEEDED.
  • As a result, crops produce better, pest problems are fewer and the environment gets healthier.

TYPES OF PRACTICES

  • Cultural
  • Biological
  • Chemical

CULTURAL PRACTICES

Normal field work is used to make field conditions best for the crop and worst for pests.

  • Site selection
  • Preparing land early and properly.
  • Using pest-free planting material.
  • Spacing to reduce overcrowding and disease build-up.
  • Checking fields weekly for problems (scouting).
  • Feeding plants for early, healthy growth.
  • Early removal of sick plants from fields.
  • Crop rotation.
  • Reaping on time to escape pest damage.
  • Reaping with care to reduce bruises and rots.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

 In nature, many creatures kill pests.

 The three types of beneficials (Natural enemies) are:

  • Parasites
  • Predators
  • Pathogens.

OTHER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

  • Resistant Variety
  • Biorationals eg pheromones, BT

CHEMICAL CONTROL

  • Pesticides are made to kill pests. Most pesticides will also kill or harm other living things.
  • Some are very poisonous; others less dangerous to man, beneflcials and the environment.
  • Botanical insecticides are made from plants. Some are safer and still quite effective against pests

MAJOR PEST OF RED SORREL

  • Weeds
  • Thrips
  • Root Knot Nematodes
  • Army worm

THRIPS

  • Very small
  • Infest fruits
  • Major problem to the export market

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Control

  • IPM
  • Appropriate insecticide (eg. Aecis or Diazinon)

ROOT KNOT NEMATODE.

  • Small worms living inside the roots
  • Can reduce the yield of the plants

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Control

IPM (crop rotation) Use of nematicide.

ARMY WORM

 Affects the Leaf of the plant

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Control:

  •  IPM
  • Treat with BT insecticide

MAJOR DISEASES OF RED SORREL

  • Powdery Mildew
  • Leaf Spot
  • Phytophthora Foot rot

POWDERY MILDEW

  • Fungal Disease affecting the leaves of the plant.
  • Sign: leaves appear whit in colour

Control:

  • IPM (cultural practices)
  • Use appropriate fungicide. (eg Champion or Kocide)

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LEAF SPOT

  • Fungal disease
  • Appears in a circular pattern and can result in leaf drop.

Control:

  • IPM
  • use of appropriate fungicide (eg. Sancozeb)

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PHYTHOPTERA FOOT ROT

  • Soil Bourne Fungus affecting the root of the plant and is able to survive for years.
  • Sign: =Black lesion girdling the stem above the soil line.

          =Wilting

                        =Death of the plant

Control:

  • IPM (proper water and soil mgnt, crop rotation, clean seed and field selection)
  • Use systemic fungicide.

HARVESTING

  • Major challenge in sorrel production
  • Clip fruits individually from the plant.
  • The use of an umbrella’s main vein is use to easily separate the seed from the calyx.
  • Store Calyx properly and move to market as quickly as possible.