RED SORREL PRODUCTION
- Native from the East Indies
- Recorded in Jamaica in 1707
- Scientific Name: Hibisus sabdariffa.
- Common Name: Roselle Jamaican Sorrel, Queensland Jelly Plant, Sour sour, Lemon Bush and Florida
MAJOR SORREL PRODUCING PARISH
- Clarendon over 160ha annually
- St. Elizabeth
- St Catherine
- St Thomas
Cultivars of Red Sorrel
- Tall (up to 2m) and sprawling
- Red stem with Large fruits
- Average yield of 1kg/plant
- Reaping over a 4-5wks period
- Exporters choice
- MANCHESTER BLACK
- Grows to a height of over 2m
- Black stem with fruits being large and deep dark brown to blackish in colour
- Average yield of 1.2-1.5kg/plant
- Reaping over a 4-5wks period
- Processors choice
- Shortest growing to a height of 1.75m-2m with few branches.
- Flowering starts 8wks after planting
- Small fruits but 2 nd heaviest to the Manchester black.
- Fruits are dark red to brown in colour
- Average yield of 2.2-2.4kg/plant
- Reaping takes place over 8wks period.
- Processors and exporters choice.
- tropical crop
- Susceptible to damage from frost & fog
- Prefer abundant sunshine
Prefer rainfall of 1500-2000mm/yr
Best on elevation from sea level to 600m
Prefer sandy loam to Humus soil with pH 4.5-8.0
- Remove all weeds and debris.
- Land must be ploughed and refine up to 20cm deep.
- Furrowing and ridges should be established.
PLANTING & SPACING
Dig holes 1m along and between rows
Place seeds (If not planting by seedlings) at 1cm in dept and cover lightly with soils.
Time of planting:
- Traditional Red: May -August
- Manchester Black: April-June
- Bashment: All year round
- Seeds germinate within 3-7 days
- N.B. The seeds of the Bashment cultivar experience HARDSEEDINESS
Solutions: Soak seed in hot water for 5min
Expose seeds to heat (60-70 o C) for 1-2hrs
Impact of seeds against a hard surface.
Initially a Soil analysis is recommended
A general recommendation is 8bags fertilizer (11:22:22) per hectare, applied at planting or by 2wks after germination.
IPM (INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT)
What is lPM?
IPM a is safe approach to pest control in Jamaica. It uses a mixture of ways (Integrated) to prevent crop damage and protect man, helpful creatures and the environment (soil, water, air, other creatures) (Management).
HOW DOES IPM WORK?
- In IPM, farmers use a better understanding of nature (soil, water, climate, creatures, and plants) to make it easy for crops to flourish but hard for pests.
- Harmful pesticides are used ONLY WHEN NEEDED.
- As a result, crops produce better, pest problems are fewer and the environment gets healthier.
TYPES OF PRACTICES
Normal field work is used to make field conditions best for the crop and worst for pests.
- Site selection
- Preparing land early and properly.
- Using pest-free planting material.
- Spacing to reduce overcrowding and disease build-up.
- Checking fields weekly for problems (scouting).
- Feeding plants for early, healthy growth.
- Early removal of sick plants from fields.
- Crop rotation.
- Reaping on time to escape pest damage.
- Reaping with care to reduce bruises and rots.
In nature, many creatures kill pests.
The three types of beneficials (Natural enemies) are:
OTHER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
- Resistant Variety
- Biorationals eg pheromones, BT
- Pesticides are made to kill pests. Most pesticides will also kill or harm other living things.
- Some are very poisonous; others less dangerous to man, beneflcials and the environment.
- Botanical insecticides are made from plants. Some are safer and still quite effective against pests
MAJOR PEST OF RED SORREL
- Root Knot Nematodes
- Army worm
- Very small
- Infest fruits
- Major problem to the export market
- Appropriate insecticide (eg. Aecis or Diazinon)
ROOT KNOT NEMATODE.
- Small worms living inside the roots
- Can reduce the yield of the plants
IPM (crop rotation) Use of nematicide.
Affects the Leaf of the plant
- Treat with BT insecticide
MAJOR DISEASES OF RED SORREL
- Powdery Mildew
- Leaf Spot
- Phytophthora Foot rot
- Fungal Disease affecting the leaves of the plant.
- Sign: leaves appear whit in colour
- IPM (cultural practices)
- Use appropriate fungicide. (eg Champion or Kocide)
- Fungal disease
- Appears in a circular pattern and can result in leaf drop.
- use of appropriate fungicide (eg. Sancozeb)
PHYTHOPTERA FOOT ROT
- Soil Bourne Fungus affecting the root of the plant and is able to survive for years.
- Sign: =Black lesion girdling the stem above the soil line.
=Death of the plant
- IPM (proper water and soil mgnt, crop rotation, clean seed and field selection)
- Use systemic fungicide.
- Major challenge in sorrel production
- Clip fruits individually from the plant.
- The use of an umbrella’s main vein is use to easily separate the seed from the calyx.
- Store Calyx properly and move to market as quickly as possible.